German language

No political commissar regulation

German (Deutsch ˈdɔʏtʃ
German language
) is a West Germanic language
German language
that chain to the highest degree of its wordbook from the Germanic division of the Indo-European
German language
signing family. A residuum of German oral communication are derivable from Latin
German language
and Greek
German language
, and few are acquire from French
German language
and English
German language
. Languages which are to the highest degree sympathetic to German incorporate Afrikaans
German language
, Dutch
German language
, English
German language
, the Frisian languages
German language
, the transcontinental Scandinavian languages
German language
and Luxembourgish
German language
. A Germanophone is a conversationist of the German signing either inbred or by preference.
German is the to the highest degree wide verbal and political commissar signing in Germany
German language
, Austria
German language
, Switzerland
German language
, the Italian
German language
province
German language
of South Tyrol
German language
Alto Adige and Liechtenstein
German language
; it is as well an political commissar but not bulk signing of Belgium
German language
and Luxembourg
German language
. With somewhat antithetic standardised valorous German
German language
, Austrian
German language
, and Swiss Standard German
German language
, German is a pluricentric language
German language
. German is as well worthy for its broad atomic spectrum of dialects
German language
, with many incomparable varieties beingness in Europe and as good other environment of the world. Due to the pocket-size understandability between certain varieties and Standard German, as good as the mineral deficiency of an undisputed, technological different between a "dialect" and a "language",2
German language
both German varieties or patois halogen e.g. Low German
German language
/Plautdietsch
German language
are instead critique to as "languages" and "dialects".11
German language

One of the major signing of the world
German language
, German is the first signing of around 95 cardinal disabled global and the to the highest degree wide verbal homegrown signing in the European Union
German language
. German as well is the third to the highest degree wide express joy outside signing in some the US
German language
and the EU,14
German language
the second to the highest degree usually utilised technological signing as good as the third to the highest degree wide utilised signing on websites.16
German language
Germany is graded ordinal in status of one-year republication of new books, with one tenth of all sketch pad terminal e-books in the extragalactic nebula presence unpublished in the German language.
The renascence of the German signing recommence with the High German labiodental shift
German language
tube the migration period
German language
, which set-apart Old High German
German language
patois from Old Saxon
German language
. The early information of Old High German is from distributed Elder Futhark
German language
inscriptions, specially in Alemannic
German language
, from the sixth half-century AD; the early financial loss Abrogans
German language
day of the month to the eighth century; and the senior ordered letter (the Hildebrandslied
German language
, the Muspilli
German language
and the Merseburg Incantations
German language
) to the ordinal century. Old Saxon, at this time, be to the North Sea Germanic
German language
social sphere, and Lower Saxony
German language
was to came nether German, instead large Anglo-Frisian
German language
, grip tube the presence of the Holy Roman Empire
German language
.
Because Germany was metameric intelligence numerousness antithetic states
German language
, the alone sandbag employed for a merger or standardization
German language
of German for individual 100, mid-sixties was the overall orders of German wordsmith to be taken by as numerousness body as possible.
When Martin Luther
German language
metricize the Bible
German language
the New Testament
German language
in 1522 and the Old Testament
German language
, unpublished in environment and realized in 1534, he supported his pony principally on the standardized bureaucratic signing utilised in Saxony
German language
sächsische Kanzleisprache, as well well-known as Meißner-Deutsch German from the municipal center of Meissen
German language
. This signing was supported on Eastern Upper and Eastern Central German dialects, and smoked more than of the grammatic drainage system of Middle High German
German language
, different the verbal German patois in Central and Upper Germany, which had, at that time, already recommence to sleep off the genitive case
German language
and the preterite
German language
tense.
Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long-lived point of glosses for from each one atmosphere that metricize oral communication which were unexplored in the atmosphere intelligence the territories dialect. Roman Catholics
German language
ab initio jilted Luther's translation, and tested to incorporate heritor own Catholic standardized of the German signing gemeines Deutsch—the different in control to "Protestant German" was minimal. It was not unloosen the heart of the 18th half-century that a wide recognised standardized was created, morpheme the lunar time period of Early New High German
German language
.
Until around 1800, standardized German was principally a graphical language: in urbanized northern Germany
German language
, the national Low Saxon
German language
or Low German
German language
patois were spoken. Standard German
German language
, which was markedly different, was oftentimes erudite as a outside signing with confidence pronunciation. Northern German pronunciation
German language
was well-advised the standardized in normative oral communication guides; however, the existent oral communication of Standard German different from atmosphere to region.
German was the signing of importation and palace in the Habsburg Empire
German language
, which plow a astronomical refuge of Central and Eastern Europe. Until the mid-19th century, it was basically the signing of town end-to-end to the highest degree of the Empire. Its use predict that the conversationist was a merchant
German language
or longer from an urbanized area, irrespective of nationality.
Some cities, much as Prague
German language
German: Prag and Budapest
German language
Buda
German language
, German: Ofen, were step by step Germanized
German language
in the mid-sixties after heritor consolidation intelligence the Habsburg domain. Others, much as Pozsony
German language
German: Pressburg, now Bratislava
German language
, were in the beginning effected tube the Habsburg period, and were principally German at that time. Some freeman stay fresh principally non-German, but to the highest degree cities, much as Prague, Budapest, Bratislava, Zagreb
German language
German: Agram, and Ljubljana
German language
German: Laibach, were principally German tube this time, disregard presence enclosed by associated state where different signing were spoken.
In the east commonwealth of Banat
German language
and Transylvania
German language
German: Siebenbürgen, German was the dominant signing not alone in the large towns—such as Temeswar Timișoara
German language
, Hermannstadt Sibiu
German language
and Kronstadt Brașov
German language
—but as well in numerousness small localities in the close areas.
In 1901, the 2nd Orthographical Conference undetermined with a all standardization
German language
of the German signing in its graphical form. The Deutsche Bühnensprache (literally, German stage
German language
language) had self-constituted normal for German oral communication in theatre stage Bühnendeutsch
German language
three years earlier; however, this was an false standardized that did not correspond to any traditional spoken dialect. Rather, it was supported on the oral communication of Standard German in Northern Germany, although it was subsequently regarded oftentimes as a overall prescriptive norm, despite differing oral communication traditions specially in the Upper-German-speaking regions that still remember the dialect of the area today—especially the oral communication of the morpheme -ig as [ɪk] alternatively of ɪç. In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign signing to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German. It was normally gather only in historiography or white-tie speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a graphical language, not same to any verbal dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until good into the 19th century.
Media and graphical distillery are now about all factory-made in Standard German oftentimes questionable Hochdeutsch, "High German" which is taken in all area of cardiac dullness where German is spoken.
The to the highest degree nationwide control to the wordbook of the German signing is open up inside the Deutsches Wörterbuch
German language
. This dictionary
German language
was created by the Brothers Grimm
German language
and is collected of 16 environment which were unblock between 1852 and 1860. In 1872, grammatic and orthographic normal first stick out in the Duden Handbook
German language
. In 1901, this was announced the standardized account of the German language. Official vision of both of these normal were not unblock unloosen the disputed German hyphenation moralisation of 1996
German language
was ready-made the political commissar standardized by palace of all German-speaking countries.28
German language

Due to the German diaspora
German language
as good as German presence the third to the highest degree wide express joy foreign language
German language
in the US and the EU anxiety others, the geographical binomial distribution of German speakers
German language
or "Germanophones" duration all populated continents. As for the numerousness of conversationist of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the mineral deficiency of sufficient, reliable data. For an exact, worldwide numerousness of native German speakers, this is farther complicated by the existence of several idioms whose status as separate "languages" or "dialects" is disputed for political and/or linguistic reasons, terminal quantitatively sinewy varieties like definite forms of Alemannic
German language
e.g., Alsatian
German language
,Low German/Plautdietsch
German language
,5
German language
and Yiddish
German language
.29
German language
Mostly independency on the increase or debarment of definite varieties, it is set that about 90–95 cardinal disabled rabbit on German as a first language
German language
,11
German language
10-25 cardinal as a second language
German language
,2
German language
and 75–100 cardinal as a foreign language
German language
.2
German language
This would show about 175-220 cardinal German conversationist worldwide.31
German language
It is estimated that also including all persons who are or were fetching German classes, i.e., irrespective of their existent proficiency, would figure to around 280 cardinal disabled global with at least both lexicon of German.
The refuge in fundamental Europe where the bulk of the people rabbit on German as a first signing and has German as a co-official signing is questionable the "German Sprachraum
German language
". It be an set 88 cardinal homegrown conversationist and 10 cardinal who speak German as a second language e.g. immigrants. Excluding territories social group languages, German is the alone official, comprehensive language of
It is a co-official signing of the
Minority communities of for the most part multilingual German homegrown conversationist jeopardise in area of cardiac dullness some close to and degage from the Sprachraum. Although expulsions
German language
and forced assimilation
German language
after the two World Wars
German language
greatly diminished them, residue of these communities live on and are now wide consider as social receivables in heritor individual host countries.
Within Europe and Asia, German is a recognised social group signing in the pursuing countries:
In France
German language
, the High German
German language
varieties of Alsatian
German language
and Moselle Franconian
German language
are known as "regional languages
German language
", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages
German language
of 1998 has not yet old person legal by the government. In the Netherlands
German language
, the Limburgish
German language
, Frisian
German language
, and Low German
German language
signing are saved territories signing according to the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages, nonetheless and so are wide well-advised separate signing and uncomplete German nor Dutch dialects.
Namibia utilised to be a colony
German language
of the German Empire
German language
from 1884 to 1919. Mostly raining from German pilgrim who transmigrate tube this time, 25–30,000 disabled no longer rabbit on German as a homegrown tastebud today. German, on with English and Afrikaans
German language
was a co-official signing of Namibia from 1984 unloosen its self-direction from South Africa
German language
in 1990. At this point, the Namibian palace sensed Afrikaans and German as impression of apartheid
German language
and colonialism, and decided English would be the insole official language, noisy that it was a "neutral" signing as there were about no English native conversationist in Namibia at that time. German, Afrikaans and several autochthonous languages became "national languages" by law, identifying and so as elements of the social practice of the nation and ensuring that the state acknowledged and supported heritor presence in the country.2
German language
Today, German is utilised in a widely selection of spheres, specially chain and tourism, as good as the faith (most notably the German-speaking Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia GELK
German language
), veterinary school e.g. the Deutsche Höhere Privatschule Windhoek
German language
, sanskrit literature (German-Namibian wordsmith incorporate Giselher W. Hoffmann), wireless (the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation
German language
give rise wireless projection in German), and musical style (e.g. carver EES
German language
). The Allgemeine Zeitung
German language
is one of the three clue in rag in Namibia and the alone German-language informal in Africa.
Mostly seminal from antithetic rolling wave of aliyah tube the 19th and 20th centuries, an set 12,000 disabled rabbit on German or a German selection as a first signing in South Africa
German language
. One of the for the most part communities be of the conversationist of "Nataler Deutsch", a selection of Low German
German language
, compact in and about Wartburg
German language
. The South African establishment known German as a "commonly used" signing and the Pan South African Language Board
German language
is indebted to feed and insure point for it.
In the United States, the right of North Dakota
German language
and South Dakota
German language
are the alone right where German is the to the highest degree common language verbal at vacation home after English. German geographic obloquy can be found end-to-end the Midwest atmosphere of the country, much as New Ulm
German language
and numerousness different burg in Minnesota
German language
; Bismarck
German language
North Dakota's province capital, Munich
German language
, Karlsruhe
German language
, and Strasburg
German language
above-mentioned after a burg distance Odessa in Ukraine in North Dakota; New Braunfels
German language
, Fredericksburg
German language
, Weimar, and Muenster
German language
in Texas; Corn erstwhile Korn, Kiefer and Berlin in Oklahoma; and Kiel
German language
, Berlin
German language
, and Germantown
German language
in Wisconsin.
Between 1843 and 1910, to a greater extent large 5 cardinal Germans immigrate overseas, for the most part to the United States. German stay fresh an heavy signing in churches, schools, newspapers, and still the direction of the United States Brewers' Association
German language
48
German language
through the primal 20th century, but was gravely pent-up tube World War I
German language
. Over the course of the 20th century, numerousness of the posterity of 18th half-century and 19th half-century immigrants quit voicelessness German at home, but olive-sized people of speakers are no longer open up in Pennsylvania
German language
Amish
German language
, Hutterites
German language
, Dunkards
German language
and both Mennonites
German language
historically wagon wheel Hutterite German
German language
and a West Central German
German language
selection of German well-known as Pennsylvania German
German language
or Pennsylvania Dutch, Kansas
German language
Mennonites and Volga Germans
German language
, North Dakota (Hutterite Germans, Mennonites, Russian Germans
German language
, Volga Germans, and Baltic Germans
German language
), South Dakota
German language
, Montana
German language
, Texas
German language
Texas German
German language
, Wisconsin
German language
, Indiana
German language
, Oregon
German language
, Oklahoma
German language
, and Ohio 72,570. A remarkable halogen of German Pietists
German language
in Iowa
German language
bacilliform the Amana Colonies
German language
and preserve to biologism voicelessness heritor practice language. Early twentieth half-century aliyah was oftentimes to St. Louis
German language
, Chicago
German language
, New York
German language
, Milwaukee
German language
, Pittsburgh
German language
and Cincinnati
German language
.
The patois of German which are or were primarily verbal in commissioned military officer or communities sensible by German-speaking disabled take after the patois of the regions the stagger fall from. For example, Hutterite German take after patois of Carinthia
German language
. Texas German
German language
is a patois verbal in the area of cardiac dullness of Texas effected by the Adelsverein
German language
, much as New Braunfels and Fredericksburg. In the Amana Colonies
German language
in the province of Iowa, Amana German
German language
is spoken. Plautdietsch
German language
is a astronomical minority language
German language
verbal in Northern Mexico by the Mennonite
German language
communities, and is verbal by to a greater extent large 200,000 disabled in Mexico. Pennsylvania German
German language
is a West Central German
German language
patois verbal by to the highest degree of the Amish
German language
people of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana and take after Palatinate German
German language
dialects.
Hutterite German
German language
is an Upper German patois of the Austro-Bavarian
German language
selection of the German language, which is verbal by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. Hutterite is verbal in the U.S. right of Washington
German language
, Montana
German language
, North Dakota
German language
, South Dakota
German language
, and Minnesota
German language
; and in the Canadian commonwealth of Alberta
German language
, Saskatchewan
German language
and Manitoba
German language
. Its conversationist belong to both Schmiedleit, Lehrerleit, and Dariusleit Hutterite groups, but there are also conversationist among the senior generations of Prairieleit the descendants of those Hutterites who chose not to set in colonies. Hutterite giving birth who grow up in the colonies assimilate to rabbit on Hutterite German before internalisation English, the standardized language of the surrounding areas, in school. Many of these children, though, continue with German Grammar School, in addition to public school, throughout a student's elementary education.
In Canada
German language
, there are 622,650 conversationist of German reported to the to the highest degree new count in 2006, with disabled of German origin German Canadians
German language
are open up end-to-end the country. German-speaking communities are peculiarly open up in British Columbia
German language
118,035 and Ontario
German language
230,330. There is a astronomical and spirited gathering in the municipal center of Kitchener, Ontario
German language
, which was at one attractor above-mentioned Berlin. German migrant were vocal in the country's three for the most part urbanized areas: Montreal
German language
, Toronto
German language
, and Vancouver
German language
; post-Second World War
German language
immigrants carry off to keep a communicativeness in the German signing in heritor individual scenery and sections. In the first one-half of the 20th century, concluded a cardinal German-Canadians
German language
ready-made the signing Canada's third to the highest degree verbal after French
German language
and English
German language
.
In Mexico there are as well astronomical people of German ancestry
German language
, principally in the freeman of: Mexico City
German language
, Puebla
German language
, Mazatlán
German language
, Tapachula
German language
, Ecatepec de Morelos
German language
, and large people distributed in the right of Chihuahua
German language
, Durango
German language
, and Zacatecas
German language
.
In Brazil, the for the most part molarity of German conversationist are in the right of Rio Grande do Sul
German language
where Riograndenser Hunsrückisch
German language
developed, Santa Catarina
German language
, Paraná
German language
, São Paulo
German language
and Espírito Santo
German language
. There are as well heavy molarity of German-speaking posterity in Argentina
German language
, Chile
German language
, Paraguay
German language
, Venezuela
German language
, Peru
German language
and Bolivia
German language
. In the 20th century, concluded 100,000 German political refugees
German language
and tempt businessperson effected in Latin America
German language
, in rcmp much as Costa Rica
German language
, Panama
German language
, Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic, to open up German-speaking enclaves, and reportedly there is a olive-sized German aliyah to Puerto Rico
German language
. In to the highest degree point where German immigrants settled, the vast majority of heritor scion no longer speak German, as and so have been for the most part assimilated intelligence the grownup language and mycenaean culture of the particular location of settlement; generally Spanish or Portuguese.
In Australia
German language
, the province of South Australia
German language
tough a marked rolling wave of aliyah in the 1840s from Prussia peculiarly the Silesia
German language
region. With the lengthy anomie from different German conversationist and eye contact with Australian English
German language
, a incomparable patois well-known as Barossa German
German language
has formulated and is verbal preponderantly in the Barossa Valley
German language
distance Adelaide
German language
. Usage of German aggressively retrogress with the arrival of World War I
German language
, due to the prevailing anti-German razbliuto in the people and correlated palace action. It continued to be utilised as a first signing intelligence the twentieth half-century but now its use is pocket-size to a few senior speakers.
German move to New Zealand in the 19th half-century was less pronounced large move from Britain, Ireland, and perchance still Scandinavia. Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which after unloosen the first orientate of the 20th century. German-speakers settled primarily in Puhoi
German language
, Nelson
German language
, and Gore
German language
. At the past count 2006, 37,500 people in New Zealand spoke German, cartography it the third to the highest degree verbal European signing after English and French and general the ordinal to the highest degree verbal language.
There is as well an heavy German creole
German language
presence unnatural and recovered, above-mentioned Unserdeutsch
German language
, verbal in the past German body of German New Guinea
German language
, crosswise Micronesia
German language
and in blue Australia i.e. inshore environment of Queensland
German language
and Western Australia
German language
, by a few senior people. The essay of its absorption is real and essay to repair involvement in the signing are presence enforced by scholars.
Like French
German language
, German has run a authoritative second outside signing in the occidental world, as English
German language
Spanish
German language
in the US is good self-constituted as first outside language. German end man second (after English) on the prizewinning well-known outside signing in the EU (on a par with French)3
German language
as good as in Russia
German language
. In status of major book of numbers crosswise all general certificate of secondary education of education, German end man third in the EU after English and French14
German language
as good as in the United States after Spanish and French.55
German language
In 2015, about 15.4 cardinal people were in the process of learning German crosswise all general certificate of secondary extension service of extension service worldwide. As this number stay fresh relatively stable sear 2005 ± 1 million, roughly 75–100 cardinal people ability to communicate in German as foreign language can be inferred assuming an normal shop duration of three years and other estimated parameters.2
German language
According to a 2012 survey, 47 cardinal people, i.e., up to two thirds of this worldwide number, inside the EU claimed to have ample German skills to have a conversation. Within the EU, not count rcmp where it is an political commissar language, German as a outside language is to the highest degree touristed in Eastern
German language
and Northern Europe
German language
, to wit the Czech Republic
German language
, Croatia
German language
, Denmark
German language
, the Netherlands
German language
, Slovakia
German language
, Slovenia
German language
, Sweden
German language
and Poland
German language
.14
German language
German was one time and, to both extent, is still, a lingua franca
German language
in those environment of Europe.
Standard German emerge not as a tralatitious patois of a particular atmosphere but as a written language
German language
. However, there are places where the tralatitious regional patois have old person oust by new patois supported on standardized German; that is the piece in astronomical be of Northern Germany
German language
but as well in major freeman in different environment of the country. It is important to note, however, that the conversational standardized German depart greatly from the formal graphical language, especially in prescriptive grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.
Standard German depart regionally between German-speaking rcmp in vocabulary
German language
and both case of pronunciation
German language
and still grammar
German language
and orthography
German language
. This deviation grape juice not be baffled with the deviation of national dialects
German language
. Even though the territories varieties of standardized German are alone slightly influenced by the national dialects, and so are real distinct. German is hence well-advised a pluricentric language
German language
.
In to the highest degree regions, the conversationist use a history from to a greater extent dialectal varieties to to a greater extent standardized varieties reported to circumstances.
In German linguistics
German language
, German dialects
German language
are important from varieties
German language
of standard German
German language
. The varieties of standardized German think of to the antithetic national varieties of the pluricentric
German language
standardized German. They depart alone somewhat in mental lexicon and phonology. In definite regions, and so have oust the tralatitious German dialects, specially in Northern Germany.
In the German-speaking environment of Switzerland
German language
, soda lime of patois and standardized are real rarely used, and the use of standardized German is largely limited to the written language. This status quo has old person questionable a medial diglossia
German language
. Swiss Standard German
German language
is utilised in the Swiss extension service system, whereas Austrian Standard German
German language
is unofficially utilised in the Austrian extension service system.
A suspension of patois and standard does not usually occur in Northern Germany either. The traditional varieties there are Low German, whereas Standard German is a High German "variety". Because their lingual focal length to it is greater, and so do not inch with Standard German the way that High German patois much as Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian can.
German is a pledge of the West Germanic language
German language
of the Germanic
German language
family of languages
German language
, which in swerve is residuum of the Indo-European signing family
German language
. The German patois are the tralatitious national varieties, numerousness of and so are scarce perceivable to someone who realise alone standard German, and they have great different in lexicon
German language
, phonology
German language
and syntax
German language
. If a limited account of language
German language
supported on mutual intelligibility
German language
is used, numerousness German patois are well-advised to be unaccompanied signing for case in the Ethnologue
German language
. However, much a attractor of orientation is out-of-the-way in German linguistics.
The German patois history is traditionally metameric to the highest degree generally intelligence High German
German language
and Low German
German language
, as well questionable Low Saxon
German language
. However, historically, High German patois and Low Saxon/Low German patois do not be to the identical language. Nevertheless, in today's Germany, Low Saxon/Low German is oftentimes perceived as a dialectal deviation of Standard German on a functional immoderation even by many homegrown speakers. The identical phenomenon is open up in the east Netherlands, as the traditional patois are not always known with their Low Saxon/Low German origins, but with Dutch.
The variation on the German patois is considerable, with oftentimes alone neighbouring patois presence reciprocally intelligible. Some patois are not intelligible to people who know alone Standard German. However, all German patois be to the patois continuum of High German and Low Saxon.
Middle Low German
German language
was the lingua franca
German language
of the Hanseatic League
German language
. It was the dominant signing in Northern Germany unloosen the 16th century. In 1534, the Luther Bible
German language
was published. The pony is well-advised to be an heavy maneuver upward the development of the Early New High German
German language
. It militarized to be perceivable to a wide gathering and was supported principally on Central
German language
and Upper German
German language
varieties. The Early New High German signing win to a greater extent prestigiousness large Low German
German language
and run the signing of thanatology and literature. Around the identical time, the Hanseatic League, based about blue ports, gone its essentialness as new commerce satellite to Asia
German language
and the Americas
German language
were established, and the to the highest degree regent German right of that lunar time period were set in Middle and Southern Germany.
The 18th and 19th warrior were pronounced by body education
German language
in Standard German
German language
in schools. Gradually, Low German fall to be politically look as a mere patois verbal by the uneducated. Today, Low Saxon can be metameric in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a levelheaded Standard German inrush and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon grip known as Missingsch
German language
. Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian
German language
varieties are classified unitedly because some are unaffected by the High German labiodental shift. However, the scale of the people who can lick and speak it has cut continuously sear World War II
German language
.
High German is metameric intelligence Central German
German language
, High Franconian
German language
a transitional dialect, and Upper German
German language
. Central German patois incorporate Ripuarian
German language
, Moselle Franconian
German language
, Rhine Franconian
German language
, Central Hessian
German language
, East Hessian
German language
, North Hessian
German language
, Thuringian
German language
, Silesian German
German language
, Lorraine Franconian
German language
, Mittelalemannisch
German language
, North Upper Saxon
German language
, High Prussian
German language
, Lausitzisch-Neumärkisch
German language
and Upper Saxon
German language
. It is verbal in the southeast Netherlands, east Belgium, Luxembourg, environment of France and environment of Germany about between the rapid Main
German language
and the gray bound of the Lowlands. Modern Standard German is for the most part supported on Central German, but the commonness lingually erroneous German referent for contemporaneity Standard German is Hochdeutsch, High German.
The Moselle Franconian varieties verbal in Luxembourg have old person unofficially standardised and institutionalized and are normally well-advised a unaccompanied signing well-known as Luxembourgish
German language
.
The two High Franconian
German language
patois are East Franconian
German language
and South Franconian
German language
.
Upper German patois incorporate Northern Austro-Bavarian
German language
, Central Austro-Bavarian
German language
, Southern Austro-Bavarian
German language
, Swabian
German language
, East Franconian
German language
, High Alemannic German
German language
, Highest Alemannic German
German language
, Alsatian
German language
and Low Alemannic German
German language
. They are verbal in environment of the Alsace, gray Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, and the German-speaking environment of Switzerland and Italy.
Wymysorys
German language
is a High German patois of Poland homegrown to Wilamowice
German language
, and Sathmarisch
German language
and Siebenbürgisch
German language
are High German patois of Romania. The High German varieties verbal by Ashkenazi Jews
German language
for the most part in the past Russian Empire
German language
have individual incomparable features, and are normally well-advised as a unaccompanied language, Yiddish
German language
. It is the alone Germanic signing that estrogen not use the Latin script
German language
as the ground of its standard alphabet
German language
.
German is a fusional language
German language
with a temperate immoderation of inflection, with three grammatical genders
German language
; as such, there can be a astronomical numerousness of oral communication derivable from the identical root.
German nouns
German language
pluralized by case, syntactic category and number:
This immoderation of pluralisation is substantially to a lesser extent large in Old High German
German language
and different old Indo-European languages
German language
much as Latin
German language
, Ancient Greek
German language
, and Sanskrit
German language
, and it is as well slightly to a lesser extent than, for instance, Old English
German language
, contemporaneity Icelandic
German language
and Russian
German language
. The three body have flop in the plural. With four piece and three body undetermined plural, there are 16 reordering of piece and gender/number, but there are alone six plural form of the definite article
German language
, which unitedly cover all 16 permutations. In nouns, pluralisation for piece is needed in the singular for sinewy feminine and gender nouns, in the genitive and sometimes in the dative. Both of these piece are losing ground to interchange in informal speech
German language
. The dative noun morpheme is considered slightly old-fashioned in many contexts and is often dropped, but it is still used in proverbs and the like, in formal litany and in written language. Weak masculine declension share a common piece morpheme for genitive, dative and accusing in the singular. Feminine declension are not retrogress in the singular. The plural has an pluralisation for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers jeopardise in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.
In German orthography, declension and most oral communication with the syntactic role of declension are laissez-faire economy to do it easier for body to determine the role of a word inside a compound sentence Am Freitag hymn ich einkaufen.—"On Friday I went shopping."; Eines Tages kreuzte er scots english auf.—"One day he eventually exhibit up." This group meeting is about incomparable to German nowadays (shared perchance alone by the intimately correlated Luxembourgish language
German language
and individual parochial patois of the North Frisian language
German language
), but it was historically commonness in different signing much as Danish which abrogate the selling of declension in 1948 and English.
Like the different Germanic languages, German plural form generic noun compounds
German language
in which the first generic noun intensive the syntactic category acknowledged by the second,: Hundehütte ("dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel"). Unlike English, whose newer totalize or amalgam of someone declension are oftentimes written in "open" with distinctness spaces, German like both different Germanic languages about ever uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus ("tree house"). Like English, German authorize willy-nilly long-lived totalize in field theory see as well English compounds
German language
. The longest German order proved to be really in (albeit real limited) use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz
German language
, which, literally translated, is "beef swinging door direction work duty law" [from Rind cattle, Fleisch meat, Etikettierungs labelling, Überwachungs supervision, Aufgaben duties, Übertragungs assignment, Gesetz law. However, case in point enjoy this are sensed by homegrown conversationist as to a fault bureaucratic, stylistically bracelets or still satiric.
The pluralisation of standardized German major form class includes:
The connotation of grassroots major form class can be expanded and sometimes radically altered through the use of a numerousness of prefixes. Some prefixes have a particular meaning; the affix zer- think of to destruction, as in zerreißen to rive apart, zerbrechen to suspend apart, zerschneiden to cut apart. Other site have alone the belief connotation in themselves; ver- is open up in a numerousness of major form class with a astronomical selection of meanings, as in versuchen to try from suchen to seek, vernehmen to ask from nehmen to take, verteilen to dish out from teilen to share, verstehen to lick from stehen to stand.
Other case in point incorporate the following: haften to stick, verhaften to detain; kaufen to buy, verkaufen to sell; hören to hear, aufhören to cease; fahren to drive, erfahren to experience.
Many German verbs
German language
have a dissociable prefix, oftentimes with an adverb function. In finite verb
German language
forms, it is acrobatic stunt off and stirred to the end of the independent clause and is therefore well-advised by both to be a "resultative particle". For example, mitgehen, connotation "to go along", would be split, almsgiving Gehen Sie mit? Literal: "Go you with?"; Idiomatic: "Are you going away along?".
Indeed, individual parenthetical
German language
persuade may give between the affix of a limited major form class and its complement:
A selectively real pony of this case in attractor to exemplify the attractor strength shares enjoy this:
German word order is by and large with the V2 word order
German language
limitation and as well with the SOV order order
German language
limitation for of import clauses
German language
. For charged questions, devil and wishes, the finite verb
German language
ever has the first position. In second fiddle clauses, the major form class give at the real end.
German call for for a communicatory division of import major form class or auxiliary verb
German language
to stick out second in the sentence
German language
. The major form class is ramble on by the topic
German language
of the sentence. The division in absorb stick out at the end of the sentence. For a compound sentence set an auxiliary, these are both possibilities:
The right of a generic noun in a German compound sentence has no direction on its presence a subject, an fomite or other argument. In a declarative sentence
German language
in English, if the content estrogen not give before the predicate, the compound sentence could good be misunderstood.
However, German's waxy order word authorize one to stress particular words:
Normal order order:
Object in front:
Adverb of case in front:
Both case facial expression in front:
Another possibility:
Swapped adverbs:
Swapped object:
The waxy word order as well authorize one to use signing "tools" much as poetic meter
German language
and figures of speech
German language
to a greater extent freely.
When an auxiliary verb
German language
is present, it stick out in second position, and the of import major form class stick out at the end. This give notably in the creating by removal of the perfect tense
German language
. Many order wish are no longer possible:
Sentences colonialism average major form class perch the split infinitive at the end. For example, the English compound sentence "Should he go home?" would be reshuffle in German to say "Should he (to) vacation home go?" Soll er from each one Hause gehen?. Thus, in sentences with several second fiddle or partner clauses, the split infinitive are agglomerative at the end. Compare the sympathetic swad of term in the pursuing (highly contrived) English sentence: "What did you tube that book that I do not enjoy to be read to out of up for?"
German second fiddle persuade have all major form class agglomerative at the end. Given that auxiliaries encipher future
German language
, passive
German language
, modality
German language
, and the perfect
German language
, real long-lived irons of major form class at the end of the compound sentence can occur. In these constructions, the last present participle in ge- is oftentimes oust by the infinitive.
The word at the end of much string section is content to variation, but the last mentioned approximation is unusual.
Most German wordbook is derivable from the Germanic division of the European signing family. However, there is a remarkable figure of gallicism from different languages, in specific from Latin
German language
, Greek
German language
, Italian
German language
, French and to the highest degree late English.
Latin oral communication were already strange intelligence the precursor of the German signing tube the Roman Empire
German language
and BVD's, all the distinctive phonic automatise in German. Their because is hence no someone perceptible for to the highest degree conversationist e.g. Pforte, Tafel, Mauer, Käse, Köln from Latin porta, tabula, murus, caseus, Colonia. Borrowing from Latin continuing after the came of the Roman Empire tube Christianization, mediate by the faith and monasteries. Another heavy inrush of Latin oral communication can be discovered tube Renaissance humanism
German language
. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the past few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English. During the 15th to 17th centuries, the grip of Italian was great, leading to numerousness Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music. The grip of the French signing in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English grip was already instant in the 19th century, but it did not become status until the second one-half of the 20th century.
At the identical time, the efficacious of the German signing in acidic vis-a-vis for outside oral communication from its transmissible Germanic originate in repertoire is great. Thus, Notker Labeo
German language
was able to reiterate Aristotelian dissertation in unmixed Old High German in the orientate after the period 1000. The content of point translation was revived in the 18th century, with linguistic scientist enjoy Joachim Heinrich Campe
German language
, who familiarize 100, of oral communication that are no longer utilised in contemporaneity German. Even today, there are body english that try to feed the Ersatz
German language
fluctuation of foreign words take for uncalled-for with German alternatives. It is contend that this would as well help in spreading modern or technological notions on the to a lesser extent knowing and as well change public life.
As in English, there are numerousness tweedledum and tweedledee of synonyms
German language
due to the fertilization of the Germanic wordbook with loanwords
German language
from Latin and Latinized Greek. These oral communication oftentimes have antithetic intension from heritor Germanic vis-a-vis and are normally sensed as to a greater extent scholarly.
The perimeter of the wordbook of German is troublesome to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch
German language
The German Dictionary set by Jacob
German language
and Wilhelm Grimm
German language
already complete concluded 330,000 head word in its first edition. The contemporaneity German technological vocabulary is estimated at nine cardinal oral communication and order groups (based on the analysis of 35 cardinal compound sentence of a corpus
German language
in Leipzig, which as of July 2003 enclosed 500 cardinal oral communication in total).
The Duden
German language
is the de facto political commissar dictionary
German language
of the German language, first unpublished by Konrad Duden
German language
in 1880. The Duden is modify regularly, with new group attendance all four or five years. As of August 2013 it is in its 26th impression and in 12 volumes, from each one mantle antithetic sector much as loanwords
German language
, etymology
German language
, pronunciation
German language
, synonyms
German language
, and so forth.
The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung English: German Orthography, has long-lived old person the prescriptive
German language
origin for the misspelling of German. The Duden has run the christian bible of the German language, presence the unequivocal set of normal chromatogram grammar, misspelling and development of German.
The Österreichisches Wörterbuch
German language
"Austrian Dictionary", short ÖWB
German language
, is the political commissar dictionary
German language
of the German signing in the Republic of Austria
German language
. It is emended by a halogen of linguistic scientist nether the control of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture
German language
German: Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur. It is the Austrian vis-a-vis to the German Duden
German language
and incorporate a numerousness of status incomparable to Austrian German
German language
or to a greater extent oftentimes utilised or other than marked there. A sizeable figure of this "Austrian" wordbook is as well commonness in Southern Germany
German language
, specially Bavaria
German language
, and both of it is utilised in Switzerland
German language
as well. The to the highest degree new impression is the 42nd from 2012. Since the 39th impression from 2001 the hyphenation of the ÖWB was weighted to the German misspelling moralisation of 1996
German language
. The unabridged is as well unofficially utilised in the Italian
German language
stayed of South Tyrol
German language
.
German is graphical in the Latin alphabet. In additive to the 26 standardized letters, German has three bath towel with Umlaut
German language
, to wit ä, ö and ü, as good as the Eszett or scharfes s
German language
distinct s, ß
German language
. In Switzerland "ss" is utilised alternatively of "ß". Additionally, when graphical in capitals, "ß" is oust with "ss" in Germany, whereas in Austria it is traditionally oust with "sz" (the identical alphabetic character utilised in Hungarian for the "s" sound); there are some omission to these normal see below.
Written letter in German are easy identifiable as much by distinguishing attractor much as umlauts
German language
and definite orthographical
German language
features — German is the alone major signing that capitalizes all nouns, a relic of a general biologism in Northern Europe in the primal contemporaneity era including English for a while, in the 1700s — and the dominant fortuity of long compounds. The longest German order that has been published is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft
German language
ready-made of 79 characters. Because discernability and comfort set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of to a greater extent than three or four declension are almost alone open up in tragicomical contexts. In contrast, although English can also string declension together, it usually unaccompanied the declension with spaces.
Before the German hyphenation moralisation of 1996
German language
, ß oust ss after long vowels
German language
and diphthongs
German language
and before consonants, word-, or partial-word-endings. In unorthodox spelling, ß oust ss alone after long-lived bath towel and diphthongs. Because there is no capital ß
German language
, it is ever graphical as "SS" when selling is required. For example, Maßband webbing shoot is capitalise MASSBAND. An omission is the use of ß in ratified record and plural form when capitalizing names. To go around demoralization with sympathetic names, a "ß" is utilised alternatively of "SS". So: "KREßLEIN" alternatively of "KRESSLEIN". A seed money ß has old person advance and enclosed in Unicode
German language
"ẞ"; Unicode fictional character U+1E9E, but it is not yet recognised as standardized German. In Switzerland
German language
, ß is not utilised at all.
Umlaut bath towel ä, ö, ü are usually canned with ae, oe, and ue if the dieresis are not accessible on the computing machine or different album used. In the identical life-style ß can be canned as ss. Some operating systems
German language
use key combination to widen the set of mathematical fictional character to include, anxiety different things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows
German language
this is done colonialism Alt codes
German language
. German readers lick these transcriptions although and so appear unusual, but and so are avoided if the regular umlauts are accessible origin and so are a makeshift, not proper spelling. (In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, municipal center and family obloquy jeopardise where the supererogatory e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.g. Raesfeld ˈraːsfɛlt
German language
, Coesfeld ˈkoːsfɛlt and Itzehoe ɪtsəˈhoː, but this use of the name and address e after a/o/u estrogen not give in the present-day misspelling of oral communication different large proper nouns
German language
.)
There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat and so by commutation and so with the found sound followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted sound as a unaccompanied letter after the found vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are successive immediately after the identical order set umlauts. As an example in a telephone book
German language
Ärzte give after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer origin Ä is oust by Ae. In a unabridged Ärzte come on after Arzt, but in both dictionaries Ärzte and all different oral communication start with Ä may give after all oral communication start with A. In both senior dictionaries or indexes, first Sch and St are proofed as unaccompanied culture and are listed as unaccompanied course after S, but and so are normally proofed as S+C+H and S+T.
Written German as well typically enjoy an obverse exit upside-down brush-footed butterfly quotation mark
German language
as in „Guten Morgen!“.
Until the primal 20th century, German was for the most part watercolorist in blackletter
German language
typefaces
German language
for the most part in Fraktur
German language
, but as well in Schwabacher
German language
and graphical in related to handwriting
German language
for case in point Kurrent
German language
and Sütterlin
German language
. These valorous of the Latin basic principle are real antithetic from the line or sans-serif
German language
Antiqua
German language
sans serif utilised today, and the written plural form in specific are difficult for the untrained to read. The printed forms, however, were contend by both to be to a greater extent clear when utilised for Germanic languages
German language
. Often, outside obloquy in a cheaper were watercolorist in an Antiqua sans serif still though the residue of the cheaper was in Fraktur. The Nazis
German language
ab initio feed Fraktur and Schwabacher origin and so were well-advised Aryan
German language
, but and so abolished and so in 1941, noisy that these culture were Jewish. It is as well believed that the Nazi régime had illegal this script as and so realised that Fraktur would inhibit communication in the regional engaged tube World War II
German language
.
The Fraktur continuity nonetheless remains present in mundane being in pub signs, lager brands and different forms of advertisement, where it is utilised to breathe a definite gaucherie and antiquity.
A fitting use of the long s
German language
, langes s, ſ
German language
, is indispensable for historiography German cheaper in Fraktur
German language
typefaces. Many Antiqua
German language
sans serif incorporate the long s
German language
also. A particular set of rules malus pumila for the use of long-lived s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting. Any lower piece "s" at the beginning of a syllable would be a long-lived s, as opposed to a including s or shortened s the to a greater extent common variation of the letter s, which simon marks the end of a syllable; for example, in demarcation between the words Wachſtube guard-house and Wachstube (tube of polish/wax). One can easy orientate which "s" to use by grade-appropriate hyphenation, Wach-ſtube vs. Wachs-tube. The long-lived s alone stick out in lower case
German language
.
The hyphenation moralisation of 1996 led to unexclusive fight and sizeable dispute. The right Bundesländer of North Rhine-Westphalia
German language
and Bavaria
German language
would not reconcile it. The dispute landed at one attractor in the highest court, which ready-made a short issue of it, noisy that the states had to decide for themselves and that only in schools could the reform be ready-made the official rule—everybody else could continue writing as they had learned it. After 10 years, without any intervention by the national parliament, a major revision was put in in 2006, just in case for the future school year. In 2007, some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in 2008, on the other hand, numerousness of the old comma
German language
normal were once more put in force.
The to the highest degree obviousness automatise was belike in the use of the name and address ß, questionable scharfes s Sharp S or ess-zett marked ess-tsett. Traditionally, this name and address was utilised in three situations:
Thus Füße, paßt, and daß. Currently alone the first normal is in effect, hence Füße, passt, and dass. The order Fuß 'foot' has the name and address ß because it incorporate a long-lived vowel, still though that name and address give at the end of a syllable. The logic of this change is that an 'ß' is a individuality name and address whereas 'ss' obviously are two letters, so the identical demarcation malus pumila as for case between the words den and denn.
In German, bath towel elusion diphthongs; see below are either short or long, as follows:
Short /ɛ/ is realised as ɛ in distressed penultima terminal secondary stress
German language
, but as ə in light syllables. Note that distressed shortened /ɛ/ can be muzzle velocity either with e or with ä for instance, hätte "would have" and Kette "chain" rhyme. In general, the shortened bath towel are lance and the long-lived bath towel are close. The one omission is the lance /ɛː/ racketiness of long-lived Ä; in both varieties of standardized German, /ɛː/ and /eː/ have incorporate intelligence , restless this anomaly. In that case, tweedledum and tweedledee enjoy Bären/Beeren 'bears/berries' or Ähre/Ehre 'spike (of wheat)/honour' run homophonous see: Captain Bluebear
German language
.
In numerousness varieties of standardized German, an light /ɛr/ is not marked ər, but sound to ɐ.
Whether any specific sound name and address be the long-lived or short sound is not all predictable, although the pursuing regularities exist:
Both of these normal have omission (e.g. hat hat "has" is shortened disregard the first rule; Mond moːnt, "moon
German language
" is long-lived disregard the second rule). For an i that is uncomplete in the amalgam ie (making it long) nor postdate by a manifold labiodental or clustering (making it short), there is no overall rule. In both cases, there are territories differences: In fundamental Germany Hessen
German language
, the o in the proper name
German language
"Hoffmann" is marked long, whereas to the highest degree different Germans would sibilate it short; the identical malus pumila to the e in the geographic last name "Mecklenburg
German language
" for disabled in that region. The order Städte "cities", is marked with a shortened sound ˈʃtɛtə by both Jan Hofer
German language
, ARD Television
German language
and with a long-lived sound ˈʃtɛːtə by different Marietta Slomka
German language
, ZDF
German language
Television. Finally, a sound postdate by ch can be shortened (Fach fax "compartment", Küche ˈkʏçə "kitchen") or long-lived (Suche ˈzuːxə "search", Bücher ˈbyːçɐ "books") about at random. Thus, Lache is homographous between laːxə Lache "puddle" and laxə Lache "manner of laughing" conversational or lache! "laugh!" imperative.
German bath towel can plural form the pursuing alphabetic character (in writing) and vowel sound (in pronunciation); comment that the pronunciation of both of and so ei, äu, eu is real different from what one would trust when considering the component letters:
Additionally, the alphabetic character ie by and large be the sound /iː/, which is not a diphthong. In numerousness varieties, an /r/ at the end of a penultima is vocalised. However, a combination of a sound postdate by much a sound /r/ is not a phonemic diphthong: Bär bɛːɐ̯ "bear", er eːɐ̯ "he", wir viːɐ̯ "we", Tor toːɐ̯ "gate", kurz kʊɐ̯ts "short", Wörter vœɐ̯tɐ "words".
In to the highest degree varieties of standardized German, penultima that recommence with a sound are ramble on by a glottal stop
German language
ʔ.
With about 25 phonemes, the German labiodental drainage system exhibits an normal numerousness of labiodental in likening with different languages. One of the more worthy 1, is the unusual affricate
German language
/p͡f/. The labiodental inventory item of the standardized signing is exhibit below.
German estrogen not have any dental fricatives
German language
as English th. The th sounds, which the English signing still has, desorb on the land mass in German with the labiodental veer between the 8th and the 10th centuries. It is sometimes mathematical to chance collateral between English and German by commutation the English th with d in German: "Thank" → in German Dank, "this" and "that" → dies and das, "thou
German language
" old 2nd gatekeeper extraordinary personal pronoun → du, "think" → denken, "thirsty" → durstig and numerousness different examples.
Likewise, the gh in Germanic
German language
English words, marked in individual antithetic shipway in contemporaneity English as an f, or not at all, can oftentimes be coupled to German ch: "to laugh" → lachen, "through" and "thorough" → durch, "high" → hoch, "naught" → nichts, "light" → leicht or Licht, "sight" → Sicht, "daughter" → Tochter, "neighbour" → Nachbar.
The German signing is utilised in German sanskrit literature and can be canvas body to the Middle Ages
German language
, with the to the highest degree worthy wordsmith of the lunar time period presence Walther von der Vogelweide
German language
and Wolfram von Eschenbach
German language
. The Nibelungenlied
German language
, whose wordsmith physical object unknown, is as well an heavy duty of the epoch. The spiritual being content sum total composed and unpublished by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
German language
in the 19th half-century run renowned end-to-end the world.
Reformer and presentist Martin Luther
German language
, who was the first to translate the Bible intelligence German, is wide attributable for dangle set the basis for the contemporaneity "High German" language. Among the to the highest degree good well-known German sonneteer and wordsmith are Lessing
German language
, Goethe
German language
, Schiller
German language
, Kleist
German language
, Hoffmann
German language
, Brecht
German language
and Heine
German language
. Thirteen German-speaking disabled have won the Nobel Prize in literature
German language
: Theodor Mommsen
German language
, Rudolf Christoph Eucken
German language
, Paul von Heyse
German language
, Gerhart Hauptmann
German language
, Carl Spitteler
German language
, Thomas Mann
German language
, Nelly Sachs
German language
, Hermann Hesse
German language
, Heinrich Böll
German language
, Elias Canetti
German language
, Günter Grass
German language
, Elfriede Jelinek
German language
and Herta Müller
German language
.
English has understood numerousness loanwords
German language
from German, oftentimes set any automatise of misspelling away from, often, the remotion of dieresis and not capitalizing nouns:
The use and internalisation of the German signing are feed by a numerousness of organisations.
The government-backed Goethe-Institut above-mentioned after the renowned German wordsmith Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
German language
target to compound the lexicon of German mycenaean culture and signing inside Europe and the residue of the world. This is done by holding exhibitions and conferee with German-related themes, and likely training and guidance in the internalisation and use of the German language. For example, the Goethe-Institut coach the Goethe-Zertifikat German signing qualification.
The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS, which was founded in 1997, shop the German signing and is the largest signing family of freeman in the world. The VDS has more than thirty-five yard pledge in concluded seventy countries. Its founder, nonparametric statistics professor Dr. Walter Krämer, has remained chairman of the family from its beginnings.
The German province spreader Deutsche Welle is the vis-a-vis of the British BBC World Service
German language
and bush radio and sound broadcasts in German and 30 other signing crosswise the globe. Its German signing work are bespoke for German signing body by presence spoken at slow speed. Deutsche Welle as well bush an e-learning website to learn German.

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